This is the steeple of St Lambert's cathedral in Munster. The bodies of Jan of Leyden and two other Anabaptists were placed in these cages after they were tortured and killed.

The Radical Reformation

The Radical Reformation consists of the most diverse group of theologians of any of the other movements. In fact, the only characteristic that all radical reformers share is their rejection of the Catholic Church and the protestant churches. In his classic, The Radical Reformation, George Huntston Williams classified the radicals as Anabaptists, Spiritualists, or Evangelical Rationalists. Anabaptists such as Menno Simons and Balthasar H¸bmaier were pacifists who rejected infant baptism and were strict Biblicists. Caspar Schwenkfeld was a Spiritualist who emphasized the inner witness of the Spirit to such an extent that he rejected the ìexternal mattersî such as baptism and the Lordís Supper as unnecessary. Evangelical Rationalist Michael Servetus emphasized the use of reason in addition to Scripture. This led to his rejection of the Trinity and his execution as a heretic in Geneva.

Works The Twelve Articles of the Peasants
The Schleitheim Confession
Hymns How Frightened I
Christ the Lord Is Risen Again
Once He Came in Blessing
If One Ill-Treat You
God Sent His Son
Critiques Kaspar the Centimanus
Calvin Attacks Anabaptist Prohibition Against Oaths
Events Alzey Executions
First Adult Baptism
The M¸nster Rebellion
Peasants' War
The Schleitheim Meeting
More Chronology of Radical Reformation
Radical Reformation Links
Radical Reformation Album


Georg Blaurock
Conrad Grebel
Balthasar H¸bmaier
Hans Hut
Jacob Hutter
Felix Manz
Pilgram Marpeck
Bernard Rothmann
Michael Sattler
Menno Simons
Hans Denck
Jan of Leiden
Anna Jansz
Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt
Thomas M¸ntzer
Kaspar von Schwenckfeld
Evangelical Rationalists
Michael Servetus