Chronology for Catholic Reformation: Expanded Context

1452 Leonardo da Vinci is born.
1452 Robert Bellarmine is born.
1455 Johannes Gutenberg completes printing the Bible in Mainz using movable type
1455 Pope Callistus III elected.
1456 Sylvester Mazzolini Prierias is born.
1458 Pope Pius II elected.
1459 Pope Adrian VI is born.
1460 James Hochstraten is born.
1464 Pope Paul II elected.
1465 Johann Tetzel probably born in this year.
1469 Desiderus Erasmus is born.
1469 Tommaso de Vio Gaetani Cajetan is born.
1471 Pope Sixtus IV elected.
1471 Prierias becomes a Dominican.
1473 Nicolaus Copernicus is born.
1475 Michelangelo is born.
1475 Pope Leo X is born.
1478 Sixtus IV empowers the Catholic sovereigns to set up the Inquisition.
1478 Pope Clement VII is born.
1479 Johannes Cochlaeus is born.
1483 Gasparo Contarini is born.
1484 Pope Innocent VIII elected.
1486 Johann (John) Eck is born.
1487 Pope Julius III is born.
1488 Cajetan begins studies in Bologna.
1489 John Cochlaeus is born.
1490 Vittoria Colonna is born.
1490 Albert Pighius is born.
1491 Ignatius Loyola is born.
1491 Cajetan goes to Padua to finish studies and teach.
1492 Columbus sets sail for the Americas.
1492 The Moors are driven out of Granada and Ferdinand and Isabella expel the Jews from Spain.
1492 Pope Alexander VI elected.
1493 Maximilian I becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
1493 Cajetan begins lecturing at Padua on Peter Lombard's Sentences.
1494 Cajetan appointed university chair of Thomistic studies at Padua.
1494 Anna Bijns is born.
1495 Francisco Ximenez (Jimenez) de Cisneros becomes archbishop of Toledo.
1495 Prierias begins teaching at Bologna.
1496 Cajetan publishes commentary on Aquinas' On Being and Essence.
1497 Cajetan becomes professor of Thomistic theology in Pavia.
1498 Girolamo Savonarola burned at the stake.
1498 Johann Eck enters University of Heidelberg.
1498 Cajetan publishes The Analogy of Names.
1499 Cajetan called to teach in Milan.
1500 Charles V is born.
1500 Juan de Valdes is born.
1500 Reginald Pole is born.
1501 Johann Eck receives MA from Tubingen.
1501 Cajetan called to Rome and appointed procurator general of Dominicans.
1502 Johann Eck publishes On the Primacy of Peter against Luther. A report on the Leipzig debate with Luther and Karlstadt.
1502 Pope Gregory XIII is born.
1503 Pope Pius elected.
1503 Pope Julius II elected.
1506 Pope Julius II orders work on St. Peterís Basilica in Rome.
1506 Francis Xavier is born.
1506 Cajetan publishes: On Interpretation, Posterior Analytics, The Categories, Metaphysics
1507 Pope appoints Cajetan as vicar general of Dominicans.
1508 Johann Eck is ordained.
1508 Cajetan sends Dominicans to the New World.
1508 Paola Antonia Negri is born.
1509 Erasmus writes In Praise of Folly.
1509 Vittoria Colonna marries Ferrante Francesco d'Avalos, a Spanish noble.
1510 Johann Eck receives Doctor of Theology from University of Freiburg and begins to teach at Ingolstadt.
1510 Cajetan publishes The Infinity of the First Mover.
1511 Cajetan publishes A Comparison of the Authority of the Pope and Councils
1513 Giovanni de Medici becomes Pope Leo X.
1513 Battle of the Spurs: Henry VIII's forces defeat the French, at Guinegate.
1514 Prierias begins teaching in Rome.
1514 Prierias publishes *Summa Silvestrina.*
1515 Teresa of Avila is born.
1515 Battle of Marignano.
1515 Prierias named "Master of the Sacred Palace,"the court theologian to pope Leo X.
1516 Erasmus' Greek New Testament published.
1517 The Oratory of Divine Love is founded in Rome
1517 Francisco Ximenez (Jimenez) de Cisneros' Complutensian Polyglot Bible (began in 1502) is completed
1517 Cajetan named cardinal by pope Leo X.
1517 Pope Leo X commissions Prierias to respond to Luther's 95 thesis. Prierias' *Dialogus* is sent to Luther who responds with *Responsio.*
1519 Charles V elected as Holy Roman Emperor.
1519 Leipzig Disputation between Luther and Eck. Karlstadt also debates Eck. Leipzig Disputation
1519 Maximillian I dies.
1519 Pope Innocent IX is born.
1521 Pope Leo X calls King Henry VIII ìDefender of the Faithî for his publication of an anti-Luther tract.
1521 Ignatius Loyola seriously wounded in battle at Pamplona.
1521 Peter Canisius is born.
1521 Peter Canisius is born.
1521 Pope Leo X dies.
1522 Fall of the Aztecs to Cortes.
1522 Pope Adrian VI elected.
1522 Ignatius Loyola spends a year at Manresa.
1522 Bartolome de las Casas becomes a Dominican.
1522 Cajetan sent by pope Adrian VI as legate to Hungary.
1523 Pope Clement VII elected.
1523 Cajetan completes 4th volume of his commentary on Aquinas' Summa.
1523 Sylvester Mazzolini Prierias dies.
1523 Pope Adrian VI dies.
1524 Erasmus writes On the Freedom of the Will.
1524 Gaetano de Thiene founds the Theatines.
1524 May 30 Peasants in the Black Forest region of Germany begin Peasants' War. Peasants' War
1525 Eck publishes Arguments against Luther and Other Enemies of the Church.
1525 Johann Eck publishes his most important work, Enchiridian.
1525 Vittoria Colonna's husband dies.
1525 Vittoria Colonna enters the Convent of San Silvestro in Rome.
1526 Charles V marries Princess Isabella of Portugal.
1526 First Diet of Speyer.
1526 Wolsey summons Thomas Bilney and he is forced to take an oath not to disseminate Luther's views.
1526 August 29 Battle of Moh·cs. Battle of Moh·cs
1527 Johann Eck publishes On the Sacrifice of the Mass to refute Zwingli's rejection of the mass.
1527 James Hochstraten dies.
1528 Sommaschi founded.
1528 Ignatius Loyola graduates from University of Paris.
1528 Anna Bijns publishes twenty-three poems condemning the reformation.
1529 Matteo da Bascio founds the Capuchins.
1529 The Turks attack Vienna.
1529 Second Diet of Speyer. Diet of Speyer 1529
1530 Anton Maria Zaccaria founds the Barnabites (Clerks Regular of St. Paul).
1530 Cesare Baronius is born.
1533 Fall of Incas to Pizarro.
1534 Pope Paul III elected.
1534 Tommaso de Vio Gaetani Cajetan dies.
1534 Pope Clement VII dies.
1534 August 15 Ignatius Loyola and six others (including Francis Xavier) take vows of celebacy and poverty and commit to serving God.
1535 Angela Merici founds the Ursulines.
1535 Pope Gregory XIV is born.
1536 Teresa of Avila enters Carmelite convent in Avila.
1536 Gasparo Contarini asked by pope Paul III to lead papal reform commission.
1536 Anna Bijns opens a one-room school.
1536 Pope Clement VIII is born.
1537 Johann Eck publishes a German translation of the Bible.
1537 Vittoria Colonna travels to Ferrera to seek permission to found a Capuchin convent there.
1538 A book of Vittoria Colonna's poetry is published in Parma.
1540 Ignatius of Loyola founds the Society of Jesus.
1541 Regensburg Colloquy.
1541 Juan de Valdes dies.
1541 Vittoria Colonna enters the convent of San Caterina at Viterbo.
1541 Peter Canisius becomes the first Jesuit in Germany.
1542 Gasparo Contarini dies.
1542 Pope Paul III establishes the Congregation of the Inquisition.
1542 Albert Pighius dies.
1542 Robert Bellarmine is born.
1543 Johann Eck dies.
1545 Council of Trent begins its first session. Council of Trent
1546 July Schmalkald War begins. Schmalkald War
1547 Vittoria Colonna dies.
1547 Peter Canisius advises Cardinal Georg Truchsess von Waldburg at the Council of Trent.
1547 April Schmalkald War ends.
1548 Ignatius Loyola's Spiritual Excercises first published in its entirety.
1548 Anna Bijns publishes another anti-Lutheran work: The Second Book Containing Many Beautifully Artistic Refrains.
1549 Peter Canisius begins teaching at the University of Ingolstadt.
1550 Pope Julius III elected.
1550 Bartolome de Las Casas writes In Defense of the Indians.
1551 Council of Trent begins its second session.
1552 Bartolome de Las Casas writes The Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indes.
1552 Francis Xavier dies.
1552 John Cochlaeus dies.
1553 Constantinople falls to the Turks.
1554 Pope Gregory XV is born.
1555 Pope Marcellus II elected.
1555 Pope Paul IV elected.
1555 Peter Canisius publishes his first catechism written for priests and adults.
1555 Paola Antonia Negri dies.
1555 Pope Julius III dies.
1556 Ignatius Loyola dies.
1556 Peter Canisius publishes a catechism for children and one for youth.
1557 Peter Canisius attends the Colloquy of Worms.
1558 Charles V dies.
1558 Reginald Pole dies.
1559 Pope Pius IV elected.
1559 Pope Paul IV approves and publishes the first Index of Forbidden Books.
1562 Council of Trent begins its third session.
1562 Teresa of Avila founds St. Joseph's convent in Avila.
1566 Pope Pius V elected.
1567 Third volume of Anna Bijns poetry is published.
1571 Peter Canisius publishes Life of John the Baptist.
1572 Pope Gregory XIII elected.
1572 August 24 St Bartholomew's Day Massacre about 100,000 Huguenots slaughtered.
1575 Anna Bijns probably dies.
1577 Peter Canisius publishes The Life of Virgin Mary.
1580 Peter Canisius founds a Jesuit college in Fribourg.
1582 Teresa of Avila dies.
1585 Pope Gregory XIII dies.
1591 Pope Gregory XIV dies.
1591 Pope Innocent IX dies.
1597 Peter Canisius dies.
1605 Pope Clement VIII dies.
1607 Cesare Baronius dies.
1621 Robert Bellarmine dies.
1623 Pope Gregory XV dies.